Case Studies

The 3 selected case studies for this project are uniquely positioned as origin, transit and destination countries: they experience climate-induced internal migration, international immigration from several countries in their region particularly affected by climate change, as well as significant emigration rates.


In Malaysia, research data shows that there are internal migration mobilities caused by floods from the southern region of Johor to Kuala Lumpur. Internationally speaking, there is also climate-related migration happening from Indonesia due to droughts, heatwaves, and floods, as well as from Bangladesh due to sea level rise, cyclones, and floods.

The woman on the photograph, ‘Nia Riningsih cycles across a path that is inundated by tidal flooding due to rising sea levels as a result of climate change after returning home from work as a factory worker in Demak, Central Java, Indonesia, June 18, 2020. Every day, she crosses puddles of tidal water when she goes to and comes home from work, Nia’s bicycle is left corroded because she did not have the money to service and move to a proper house’. Picture credit Dhana Kencana / Climate Visuals (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0).



In Mexico, evidence suggests that there is dry soil affecting land productivity, which gives rise to internal migration to Mexico City. Looking at the international dimension, migration into Mexico can be seen from Honduras and Guatemala, which are heavily affected by hurricanes as well as recurrent droughts along the ‘dry corridor’.

The photographer, Delmer Membreno, took this picture in Nicaragua after the passages of hurricanes ETA and IOTA that caused extensive floods, landslides and massive damages in Nicaragua, Guatemala, Honduras, and Panama. Photo credit: Delmer Membreno / EU Civil Protection and Humanitarian Aid.


In Morocco, there are patterns of internal migration from the central regions of Drâa-Tafilalet and Souss-Massa to major urban centres like Casablanca that might relate to water shortages in agriculture. In terms of international migration, research suggests that agricultural regions in Senegal and Mali are particularly affected by slow-onset effects of desertification which might lead to internal migration and play a role in international migration to countries like Morocco.
The photograph was taken in Saint Louis, Senegal, by Picasa, with the following description: ‘Next to flooding from heavy rain and sea level rise, is increasing of number and length of heat waves another impact of climate change in this region and especially for Saint-Louis’ (Public domain).